Jinnah was clever
Jinnah Poonja was sent to London by his father to be trained as a businessman, but the young man turned to law as soon as he realised that to be an England-returned barrister assured him a position in Indian upper class as against being a mere box walla. He also was clever enough to learn to speak, dress and acquire the manners of an Englishman by becoming a part time Shakespearian actor on the London stage, and changed his name to Muhammad Ali Jinnah. The Quaid-i-Azam volunteered to work for Dadabhai Naoroji for his election to the British Parliament, a position which was won by Nauroji by a narrow margin. Dadabhai Nauroji (1825-1917) was elected President of Congress thrice, and made Jinnah his secretary assuring him a place in the All India Congress hierarchy.
The All India Congress was founded by the British Allan Octavian Hume and Anglicized Parsis like Dadabhai Nauroji and Dinshaw Wacha in 1885, and had as its President non-Indian Britishers, George Yula (1888 Allahabad), William Wedderburn (1889 Bombay and 1910 Allahabad)), Alfred Webb (1894 Madras), Henry Cotton (1904 Bombay) and Annie Besant (1917 Calcutta), and Parsis Dadabhai Naoroji (1889 Calcutta, 1893 Lahore, 1906 Calcutta), Mehta (1890 Calcutta) and Dinshaw (1901 Calcutta). Therefore Quaid-i-Azam also mingled with the highly Anglicized Parsi community and married a Parsi girl. As a result he was considered the rising star of Congress. But clever Jinnah, a Musla in Parsi language, had wooed at age of 38 a Parsi girl of 16, which was neither liked by her father nor by the influential Parsi community.
And then Gandhi arrived with an international reputation for his struggle against racialism in South Africa with satyagaraha (truth-force). and the title of Mahatma (Great Soul). Gandhi attended Congress meetings in India by sitting on the floor rather than on the dais with leaders and cleaned toilets with the untouchables. He also encouraged villagers in Bihar to observe civil disobedience against the government by holding protests and strikes against their British masters. The result was that instead of Jinnah, Gandhi was invested in December 1921 with executive authority by the Indian National Congress. Mahatama Gandhi reorganized the Congress with a new constitution, goal of Swaraj (independence) and the swadeshi manifesto, i.e. the boycott of the British-made goods He advocated khadi (homespun cloth) to be worn by all Indians instead of British-made textiles. Gandhi exhorted Indian men and women, rich or poor, to spend some time each day spinning khadi in support of the independence movement.
The Quaid-i-Azam was again clever when he joined Muslim League and attracted leaders of Muslim majority provinces by promising them an autonomous, sovereign and independent states of their own vide the Lahore Resolution, 1940. Further, as a lawyer he propounded that 565 princely states which comprised 45.3% of the surface of India, inhabited by 103 million people would in terms of their treaty with British Crown form a separate independent group, as compared to 110 million in Muslim majority provinces and 226 million in Hindu majority provinces. India, thus divided into three or more independent units, would not be in a position to dominate the Muslim group of states plus princely states, following the departure of the British. He also thought of a corridor between East and West Muslim majority states. This had the support of Conservative prime minister Winston Churchill who was in favour of many partitions of India, in order to create ‘Pakistan, Hindustan, Princestan, etc.’
The Quaid-i-Azam was so taken by the idea that when he went to Madras, he invited the people of South India to create a Dravidian grouping. At the 28th session of the All-India Muslim League at Madras on 14 April 1941, he said, ‘This land is really Dravidistan … I have every sympathy and shall do all to help, and you can establish Dravidistan where the seven per cent Muslim population will stretch out its hand of friendship and live with you on lines of security, justice and fair play.’
The Congress accused the Muslim League of working for the Balkanisation of India. The Quaid-i-Azam replied that freedom under Hindu hegemony would be a farce. The Congress cried out that the Muslim League had become an ally of British imperialism, and the Quaid-i-Azam retorted that the Muslim League ‘would be the ally of the devil if need be in the interest of Muslims’. He said that the reason was not ‘because we are in love with imperialism; but in politics one has to play one’s game as on a chessboard’ (Zaidi, Vol v, 96). However, Churchill lost the election and Nehru protested against the balkanization of India and got the majority of the states to join India with the help of Mountbatten who conceded only a motheaten, mutilated and truncated Pakistan.
Quaid-i-Azam’s acceptance of a motheaten, mutilated and truncated Pakistan made Chaudhry Rahmat Ali (1897-1951), unhappy over a smaller Pakistan than the one he had conceived in his 1933 Cambridge pamphlet Now Or Never. He called it ‘the greatest betrayal of the Millat in all her history’ and called Jinnah ‘Judas, Mir Jaffer and Quisling-i-Azam’. The “Pakistan Times” reported on May 22 1948 that Chaudhry Rahmat Ali came to Pakistan to launch a Pakistan National Liberation Movement with the object of securing a repudiation of the June 3 Plan, ‘by agreement if possible and without agreement if necessary’. However, he was denied a Pakistani passport, and told to leave the country. The newspaper reported on 1st October 1948 that, ‘The departure of the heartbroken Rahmat Ali from the country he named in 1933 relieves the Government of a severe headache’.
- Jinnah receiving guests